Forging is a metal shaping process that involves applying compressive forces to deform and shape the metal while it is in a solid state. This process is typically performed at high temperatures to reduce the material’s resistance to deformation. There are different types of forging processes:

  1. Open Die Forging: In open die forging, a workpiece is shaped between two flat or slightly curved dies. The dies do not completely enclose the workpiece, allowing the material to flow outward as it is compressed.
  2. Closed Die Forging (Impression Die Forging): Closed die forging uses dies that fully enclose the workpiece, shaping it into a specific form. This process is often used for producing complex, precision components.
  3. Roll Forging: Roll forging involves passing the workpiece between two rolls that exert compressive forces. This process is used for long, cylindrical parts like shafts and axles.
  4. Upset Forging: Upset forging involves shortening and thickening a portion of a workpiece by applying compressive forces. This is commonly used for creating heads on bolts and rivets.


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